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Sunday, November 20, 2011

Tropical Rainforest The Fauna

The Other Denizens Of The Forest Floor

For ants, termites and small vertebrates please see the first post page of the Tropical Rainforest subject.

"Unconventional" Invertebrates

Duliticola sp
 Duliticola sp, a female trilobite beetle
trilobite beetle
Duliticola sp, a female trilobite beetle

velvet worm
A velvet worm which is of course not a worm
A velvet worm which is of course not a worm
A velvet worm which is of course not a worm

 A slug or a snail without the protective shell

A common forest snail, this one has a flat spiral shell.

 A less common small spiral shell snail

Ribbon worm

Ribbon worm

Land Planarian or flatworm



Land Planarian or flatworm
Land Planarian or flatworm

Land Planarian or flatworm

Myriapod

pill millipede
 A giant pill millipede Hyleoglomeris sp.
a giant pill millipede
 A giant pill millipede Hyleoglomeris sp.
 A giant pill millipede Hyleoglomeris sp.
A giant pill millipede Hyleoglomeris sp.

Pill millipede
Pill millipede

 Pill millipede
Pill millipede

giant sow bug
Giant sow bug

giant jungle millipede
Giant forest millipede

 Giant forest millipede


Millipede, Tylopus sp.

Millipede aspiring to be a centipede?

Millipede, Thyropygus sp.

Two millipede post mating


A common (meaning commonly found in this geographical location) Millipede



A pair of another common millipede, mating. This may take hours to a full day.

Millipede

A common centipede brooding its clutch of eggs

The giant centipede 

Cherry Red centipede

Thereuopoda longicornis, the long limbs "cave" or "house" centipede


This is a larger species than the one below. This is one of the most commonly found genus of centipede with several slightly differing species. This is the largest and the one below one of the larger. The larger are shorter (TL) than the smaller species.





At around 1 centimeter this tiny centipede is already a mother.



Metallyticus splendidus
The nymph or larva of the praying mantis, Metallyticus splendidus.

Larva of a praying mantis, Odontomantis sp.

A small 2 centimeters Praying Mantis.

Despite its small (2 centimeter) size this mantis is colorfully clothed.
Despite its small (2 centimeter) size this mantis is colorfully clothed.
Despite its small (2 centimeter) size this mantis is colorfully clothed.

The Praying mantis wearing camouflage can you see it.?
A 3 centimeter (30 mm) ‘cockroach’ mantis wearing camouflage fatigues.
 Small and with small grappling limbs this mantis target small prey such as ants and other small arthropods.

A small species measuring less than 2 centimeters (TL 18 mm) . Another ‘cockroach’ mantis of the same genus as above. This one wearing a different camouflage fatigues.

 A 6 centimeter long Praying mantis


A white 7.5 centmeters long Praying mantis. This one is probably a fluke in Darwinian Evolution standing out like a sore thumb in the Rainforest background.
A white 75 millimeters long Praying mantis.

Larva of Praying Mantis

Larva (top) of Praying Mantis, imago (below)


Larva of Praying Mantis

A mid size Praying Mantis

Praying mantis, a larva.

Praying mantis larva.



Heterometrus spinifer the large jungle scorpion.

Large jungle scorpion



 Small scorpion.

Small scorpion.

Small scorpion


Small scorpion commonly found under bark of tree trunks


Tiny scorpion.

A vinegaroon or whipscorpion. Typopeltis sp. clutching her eggs.

A large ground dwelling spider

A medium size arboreal spider



Huntsman spider.

Running huntsman spider (Hersillidae)

(Hersillidae)







Water slider spider. Dolomdedes sp.

Water slider spider Dolomdedes sp.



Water slider spider, Thalassius sp.

Running wolf spider

Ambush spider

 Ambush spider Lyssomanes sp. (Salticidae)

Ambush spider

Huntsman spider





Ambush spider Oxyopes sp.

Ambush spider Oxyopes sp.

 A silver jumping spider, Epeus sp.
Jumping spider, Epeus sp.

A golden jumping spider Phintella sp.
A golden jumping spider Phintella sp.




Phintella sp.


























Telamonia sp.

Harmochirus sp.







Jumping spider

A jumping spider, Telamonia sp.





A jumping spider

Jumping spider







With small eyes how does this jumping spider hunts?









An ant mimic spider
 
An ant mimic spider

 Ant mimic spider. This one mimics golden gaster Polyhachis ants.






Harvestman spider

Harvestman spider
Close up of Harvestman spider.

Nephila sp
Spider, Nephila sp.
 Spider, Nephila sp.
Spider, Nephila sp.
Spider, Nephila sp.
Spider, Nephila sp., the male. Male web spinning spiders are usually tiny when compared with the female.




 Spider, Nephila sp.
 Spider, Nephila sp.
Nephila sp
Spider, Nephila sp.


 





Spider, Gasteracantha sp. The protruding 'horns' are probably a defensive mechanism against wasp the main predator of spiders. The mechanism serves as a deterrent telling the wasp that the spider will not be able to fit into the incubation nest of the wasp. Species with shorter 'horns' or 'spines' are sometimes still taken by wasps only be abandon because the wasps could not push the spiders through the opening of the nest.
Spider, Gasteracantha sp.

Spider, Gasteracantha sp.



Spider, Gasteracantha sp.



Herennia sp. (Nephilidae)


 





Castianeira sp.

Spider, Argiope sp.





 





Mites

 The majority of mites are tiny to almost microscorpic. A few are as large as small spiders.

Mites.


 Colorful cockroaches









Wood eating cockroach

 This look like the common large 'house' cockroach aka Asian cockroach and though similar in size is actually a variant species.

 Wood eating cockroach, this subadult is very flat.

 A large black cockroach not too unusual except...
.....the antennae are 'beaded' like those of termites and many beetles.


Sap Suckers
Larva of shield bugs
 Larva of shield bugs
Larva of shield bugs in last instar.

Shield bug guarding her eggs.


Hopper

Hopper

Hopper

Hopper

Hopper

Hopper. Sap sucking hoppers are called hoppers because they hop. Obviously.




Cryptolaemus are predators of mealy bugs

Sap sucker that does not hop. Are they still call hoppers? Hope not, otherwise we will all be very confused.
Nymphal or larva stage of above sap sucker that do not hop.

Sap sucker.

Another species of sap sucker.





Another species still of sap sucker.

 Assassin bugs





Assassin bug mimicking a Diacamma ant.



Assassin bug in camouflage 

Assassin bug building camouflage with sand grains

Assassin bug assassinating.


Stick Insect

Stick insect female. Is this a stick that became an insect or an insect that became a stick?

Stick insect female.
Stick insect male

 As thin as a toothpick a jouvenile.


Caterpillar
Hairy caterpillar

Hairy caterpillar


Hairy caterpillar

Hairy caterpillar

Hairy caterpillar


Hairy caterpillar


Hairy caterpillar

Hairy caterpillar













Saddle back (Ickis/Krumm) caterpillar

Saddle back caterpillar are caterpillar of moths.

A dragon saddle back caterpillar.

Hairless caterpillar

Hairless caterpillar

Hairless caterpillar

Hairless caterpillar

Hairless caterpillar



Hairless caterpillar

Hairless caterpillar

Beetles

 A beetle decorated with sparkles

 A beetle dressed in sparkles and appeared to love being eaten or is it just daring anyone to eat it?

A pair of long horn beetles mating on a fallen tree
A pair of long horn beetles mating on a fallen tree
A pair of long horn beetles mating on a fallen tree

 Long horn beetles

 Long horn beetles






Long horn beetles



Beetle

Beetle

Beetle. Yellow dotted or lined pattern is like a universal color in insect that says, 'I am poisonous'.





Beetles

More beetles.

 Three difference species of beetles all wearing the same colors for safety in homogeneity.

 



Mealworm

Larva of a species of mealworm beetle

Beetle

This beetle is half the size of the one above. A smaller verson of the above beetle or another mimicry

Beetle

Beetle



This looks like a very golden colored version of the one above.







Beetle

Beetle




Beetle

Turtle beetle

Beetle

A green ladybug (i.e. ladybird).

Beetle.





Rove beetle

Blister beetle.

Tiger beetle



Tiger beetle.

 Tiger beetle


 Tiger beetle
Tiger beetle

Tiger beetle



 These are all the same species but each individual has their own colors and color pattern


Tiger beetle.

Beetle Trachelophorus sp.

Beetle

Beetle

 Beetle (this looks like a color morph of the one above)

Beetle

Beetle.

Velvety beetle

Beetle

Male and female dung beetle in their labor for procreation.

Orthoptera

 Most grasshoppers are poor flyer but not this species, Erianthus sp., and of course not all grasshoppers hop on grass.







Erianthus sp., before it becomes an accomplish flyer it must stay inconspicuous. 


 Most grasshoppers are poor flyer but not this species, Erianthus sp.


 Most grasshoppers are poor flyer but not this species, Erianthus sp.

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

 Grasshopper the nymph (above) imago (below)


Grasshopper














Various instar of same species.

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

Grasshopper

Grasshopper





Grasshopper

Giant grasshopper

 Grasshopper or rather 'Mosshopper'. These grasshoppers have upward facing eyes and frequent fallen tree trunks and large boulder size rocks.

This specimen found in a different forest has a slight color pattern variation from the specimen in the photo above.

Grasshopper or rather lichen hopper, these feeds on moss and lichen
Grasshopper or rather lichen hopper, these feeds on moss and lichen
Grasshopper or rather lichen hopper, these feeds on moss and lichen

Cricket

Cricket




Cricket (this large cricket is commercially cultured as food for aquarium fish)


Cricket

Camel cricket, reported to be an invasive species in the U.S.




Mole cricket

Mole cricket

Mole cricket, a small species. The imago at 4 millimeters (TL). In mole crickets the front limbs are modified into clawed digging hands. In this species the hind limbs too are modified for hopping.









Katydid


Katydid.




















Diptera

 Webflies (imago of bloodworm)
Webflies

Cranefly

Cranefly

Cranefly.

Cranefly.

Craneflies doing acrobatics

Robberfly
Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Robberfly

Large Robberfly

Large Robberfly

Large Soldier fly

Soldier fly

Soldier fly

Wasp

In this wasp the 'waist' broadens towards the end where it is joined to the abdomen proper. In ants this anomaly in the waistline is called the petiole and in wasp it is called the notiole (I am kidding).


This looks fairly similar to the one in the photo above but with significant variations.
A wasp with a petiole?

A potter wasp with a 'waist' that broadens slightly towards the posterior.

In this wasp the broadening of the waist where it joins with the rest of the abdomen proper is more pronounced than in the porter wasp above.

With some wasp curling the antennae is a fashion statement.

And as with all things fashion (and also religion), it must be taken to the extreme.

Spider hunter. Main prey to wasp species of this location other than parasitoid wasp, are spiders, caterpillars and cockroaches (in that order).

Newly eclosed solitary wasp.

 A wasp that mimics Tetraponera rufonigra ants.

 Parasitoid wasp.

Large wasp.

Large wasp.

Wasp leading a cockroach it had immobilized to use as incubator for its baby.

Parasitoid wasp.

Parasitoid wasp.

Parasitoid wasp.

Ichneumon parasitoid wasp

Wasp nest under a tree trunk.

Wasps nesting along a tree trunk. The upward facing semi-circular column nest serves to deflect rain rundown. Question is, is this one colony or multiple sibling colonies?
 

A stingless bee collecting tree resin.

Stingless Wax Bee (aka Sweat Bee).

Honey Bee nesting in a live tree hollow cored by termites, beetles and cockroaches.

Solitary spider predator wasp. Incubation nest of a solitary wasp that prey on spiders. The nest is made from tree resin (amber). Shown here is another spider feeding on a spider immobilized by the wasp but was too big to fit into the opening to the incubation nest.

Velvet wasp


Assorted flies

The once ubiquitous fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta. This fruit fly was once a serious destructive pest of fruit orchards until wide scale use of pesticide in orchards saw their swift demise. Now they are still found in forest and some wooded areas.

A large jungle fly

Fly

Flies


Fly

Callopistromyia sp.

Condylostylus sp.

Condylostylus sp.

 Condylostylus sp.

 Condylostylus sp.

Condylostylus sp.

Condylostylus sp.


Condylostylus sp.

Condylostylus sp.


Condylostylus sp.


Condylostylus sp.





Condylostylus sp.


Condylostylus sp.


Condylostylus sp.


Fl




 Stalk-eye fly
Stalk-eye flies squaring off

Stalk-eye fly.


 The male
The female



A fly that mimics Robberflies.

Dragonflies and Damselflies are especially hard to shoot given the limitation of my cheap autofocus point and shoot camera. This is particularly more so because these forest Odonata are particularly flighty, even more so the large species. In some of these cases to shoot them I have to do so in the clearing that fringes the Tropical Rainforest rather than in the forest itself as the low light condition makes it next to impossible to get a decent shot (due to the poor low-light focusing mechanism) unless I am literally thirty centimeter or closer.

Butterflies are even worse. Additional most of these solitary flying insects hangs around the upper forest canopy rather than the dark forest floor.

In order to capture some of these invertebrates I have to shoot them in clearings and cleared areas that fringed the forest. Of course if I just want to take nice colorful photos of insects and other such invertebrates I could always go to an insect museum or a butterfly park. But that is not the point of this exercise which to is record what I encounter in my wanderings in the forests and parks.

I have not attempted to identify these Odonata species as there are already quite a number of websites that do a more comprehensive coverage (aside from having better quality photos with more vibrant colors) of these insect family. As it is I am more than max-ed out  biting-off more than I can chew. But any helpful comments to ID them will be greatly appreciated.

Large dragonflies

A large jungle dragonfly. This specimen measured around 90 millimeters length wise, and wing span tip to tip is 140 millimeters. I was able to get this good shot as it emerges from its larva stage. On account of it size probably Macrogomphus sp. but I do not want to get into the details of identifying them as there are numerous more comprehensive sites online and I am already over stretched as it is. But any identification put forward by viewers are welcome.


Larva of Dragonfly Macrogomphus sp.

Larvae of large dragonflies.

Macrogomphus quadratus.

This large species have a wide wing span that is twice as wide as it is long (i.e. a single fore wing at around 85 millimeters is almost as long as its body from head to tail at around 95 millimeters).

dragonfly laying eggs into a rotting tree hanging over a stream
  Most dragonflies lay their eggs directly in water or water log soil but this one here appears to lay its eggs inside rotting tree trunk that lie across fast flowing streams.
dragonfly laying eggs into a rotting tree hanging over a stream
A sharp slightly curving appendage near the end of the tail (abdomen) punches holes into the rotting tree trunk after which the dragonfly appeared to lay a single egg in each hole.
Position.
Punch and deposit egg.


Big dragonflies.

This second category are smaller than those I have categorized as large.

Ictinogomphus decoratus
Ictinogomphus decoratus.



Orthetrum sabina sabina
Orthetrum sabina sabina.


Above average size dragonfly.

 Red eyes


Brown eyes.

 
Brown eyes, dark body.

Shaded shot and (below) lighted up by sunlight.












Average size dragonfly.















This species has tail flaps


Another species with tail flaps.
 The tail flaps in this species is smaller than the previous species (above).






A color morph of the above or another species?

Tyriobapta torrida
Tyriobapta torrida female
Tyriobapta torrida
Tyriobapta torrida male



Brachydiplax farinosa
Brachydiplax farinosa (probably).

Aethriamanta gracilis (probably).


















Profile (above) and top (below) view






In sunlight (above) in shade (below).


This species has two rows of orange-vermilion spots at the bottom side of the tail (abdomen).




This (above) and two below are slight color variations in the same species. 






Small dragonflies



Idionyx ylanda
Idionyx ylanda

Tetrathemis platyptera
Tetrathemis platyptera



Damselfly larva

 Damselfly Libellago lineata male (below) and female (above)


Heliocypha biforata
Heliocypha biforata.
Heliocypha biforata.
Heliocypha biforata
Heliocypha biforata.



Libellago stigmatizans
Libellago stigmatizans

Euphaea pahyapi
Euphaea pahyapi.
Euphaea pahyapi.
Euphaea pahyapi.

Vestalis amethystina
Vestalis amethystina
Vestalis amethystina
Vestalis amethystina
Vestalis amethystina
 







Larvae of Damselfly






















Euphaea impar



This species has a short body that makes its head look disproportionately large.




This looks very similar to the one directly above but with slight color variation.


Another color variation?









 






















 Male (top) and female (below)





 Small damselfly this species measured below 2 centimeters. Agriocnemis nana male. There is a slight color difference this species instead of blueish is more orange.

Small damselfly. Agriocnemis nana female.



Butterfly And Moths
Butterflies and moths are very common in a forest environment however I will only post the less common species that I encounter.

Birdwing butterfly (Papilio polytes).
A butterfly mimicking a bird for whatever unknown reason as birds are not exactly a deterrent to predators unless the predators are smaller frogs and lizards species.

 Butterflies

 Moth

 Moth

Not even sure what this is.

Moth


 Moth;

Moth

 Moth with leathery looking wings maybe to make it appear like a bat to bat sonar.

Moth

moth

Common giant moth

Moth that mimics a butterfly. Who knows the reason why?

Miscellaneous

Zorotypus is a small insect under the Order of Zoraptera and has nothing to do with the “legendary” masked Zoro made famous by TV and movies.


Cicada

Nymph or larva of cicada.

A blood sucker of the forest, but not this male.

The female mosquito.

Barklice (Psocids)

Barklice (Psocids)

Barklice (Psocids)

Large earwig



Colorful earwig

Earwig

Earwig

A tree 'silverfish'?

 Splittlebug builds a foam around themselves as they feed on plants sap. They are sap suckers.





Last Updated: 2017 03 01
First Posted: 2011 11 20
© 2011 – 2017 Quah. All rights reserved.

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